One of the things that excited me while learning Unix/Linux was how quickly one can perform tasks via the command line. Bash is a fully functional scripting language that incorporates Variables, Loops and If/Then statements; the bash shell allows a user to use these functions while performing adhoc tasks via the command line. This is also true for the other common shells such as bourne, korn shell, and csh.
Below I will show 5 example for loops that are run on the command line without being placed into a shell script. These commands will show how one can use a for loop to accomplish an adhoc repetitive task quickly and efficiently.
Quickly creating files using seq
In the first example I am going to show how to create 1,000 files in a numbered order. While this example is more about showing how to use bash for loops, I do for some strange reason find myself performing this type of task more often than one would expect.
$ for NUM in `seq 1 1 1000` > do > touch $NUM-file.txt > done
In the above for loop we run the command
seq which outputs a sequence of numbers. The first argument to seq is the starting number, the second is the integer to increase by and the last is the integer to stop on. The output of seq is provided as the input for the for loop and each line is assigned to the NUM variable.
$ ls -l | head total 0 -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 1000-file.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 100-file.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 101-file.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 102-file.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 103-file.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 104-file.txt
You may notice that the for loop is written on multiple lines; in bash you can write for/while/until loops and if statements over multiple lines with the command not running until the statement is closed. I will be using this format to make it easier to read however you can also write the for loop over one line using the semicolon ";" to separate lines.
$ for NUM in `seq 1 1 1000`; do touch $NUM-file.txt; done
Quickly rename "specific files"
This next example will show how to execute a command (mv in our case) against files that are listed in a text file. This example is fairly useful and can be adopted to various scenarios.
$ for FILE in `cat filestomove.txt`; > do > FILEBASENAME=$(echo $FILE | cut -d. -f1) > FILEEXT=$(echo $FILE | cut -d. -f2) > mv $FILE $FILEBASENAME-moved.$FILEEXT > done $ ls -la *-moved* | head -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 800-file-moved.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 801-file-moved.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 802-file-moved.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 803-file-moved.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 804-file-moved.txt -rw-rw-r-- 1 madflojo madflojo 0 Oct 20 19:22 805-file-moved.txt
As you can see from the output the for loop was able to read the files listed in "filestomove.txt" and rename them adding
-moved to the filename. This example is a little loaded as it assumed that every file had a file extension in the name, but I wanted to highlight how you could use variable assignments and the
cut command to breakup the filename and include
-moved while keeping the file extension. This gives you a starting point on how to modify the input text as needed.
Get user info from /etc/passwd and chown their home directory
Let's face it, sometimes when you give Jr. Admins too much access they tend to make rookie mistakes. Like chowning the
/home directory recursively to the root user... In this example we will grab the username and home directory of each "real user" in the /etc/passwd and changing the ownership of the home directory to a more realistic owner.
$ IFS=$'\n' $ for USERINFO in `grep "/bin/bash" /etc/passwd | grep ":/home"` > do > USERNAME=$(echo $USERINFO | cut -d: -f1) > HOMEDIR=$(echo $USERINFO | cut -d: -f6) > chown -R $USERNAME $HOMEDIR > done
As you can see I used
grep to ensure that I only received lines that had both the strings
/home. I also used the Bash Internal Field Separator (IFS) to ensure that spaces in the GECOS field did not change the expected placement of the username and homedir. Again we used
cut to extract values and assign them to variables.
Check if the directories in home are assigned to a user
This example is a bit of a continuation of the previous; however it will show a different method of getting input for the for loop. The following command will gather a list of directories in the
/home directory and check if that directory is listed in
$ cd /home/ $ for DIR in * > do > CHK=$(grep -c "/home/$DIR" /etc/passwd) > if [ $CHK -ge 1 ] > then > echo "$DIR is good" > else > echo "$DIR is not good" > fi > done madflojo is good testdir is not good
Unlike the previous for loops where the input was generated by the output of a command run in a subshell, the input in this example was generated by an
*. This is equivalent to running
ls *, it will list all of the items located in the current directory that do not start with a
This example also introduces the usage of if statements, like for loops these can also be used on the command line. The above will check the number of instances of
/etc/passwd and assign that value to the
$CHK variable. The if statement simply checks if the
$CHK value is greater than or equal to 1. If it is than the shell will
echo "$DIR is good" if not than the shell will
echo "$DIR is not good".
Copying a file to a list of hosts
I often find myself wanting to copy a file to a number of hosts. Rather than running scp manually over and over I usually tend to write an adhoc for loop that is similar to the following.
$ for HOST in ubuntu01 fedora02 centos03 rhel06 > do > scp somefile $HOST:/var/tmp/ > done
In this example you may notice that the input for the for loop is simply a list of hosts. In Bash the default field separator is a space; by giving a list of host-names separated by a space the for loop will run an scp command targeting each host. This command is a bit more effective when you have SSH keys setup between the hosts, but even if you have to type a password I think this tends to be faster when your loop is running against a list of 5+ hosts.
That about covers it for my list of example for loops, if you have another example that you think I should have covered hop to the comments and share it.
Recently Benjamin published his first book; Red Hat Enterprise Linux Troubleshooting Guide. In addition to writing, he has several Open Source projects focused on making Ops easier. These projects include Automatron, a project enabling auto-healing infrastructure for the masses.
Identify, capture and resolve common issues faced by Red Hat Enterprise Linux administrators using best practices and advanced troubleshooting techniques
What people are saying:
Excellent, excellent resource for practical guidance on how to troubleshoot a wide variety of problems on Red Hat Linux. I particularly enjoyed how the author made sure to provide solid background and practical examples. I have a lot of experience on Red Hat but still came away with some great practical tools to add to my toolkit. - Amazon Review