Adding static routes in Linux can be troublesome, but also absolutely necessary depending on your network configuration. I call static routes troublesome because they can often be the cause of long troubleshooting sessions wondering why one server can't connect to another.
This is especially true when dealing with teams that may not fully understand or know the remote servers IP configuration.
The Default Route
Linux, like any other OS has a routing table that determines what is the next hop for every packet.
Print the routing table contents
There are numerous commands that show the routing table but today we will use the
ip command as this command will be replacing the
route command in future releases.
# ip route show 10.1.6.0/26 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.1.6.21 10.1.7.0/24 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 10.1.7.41 default via 10.1.6.1 dev eth0
As you can see in the example routing table there are numerous routes however 1 route shows as the default route. This routing table tells the system that if the IP that is being communicated to does not fall into any of the other routes than send the packets to the default route defined as 10.1.6.1. The default route basically acts as a catchall for any packet that isn't being told what to do in the above routes.
Our Example System
In today's article I will be referencing an example network configuration in order to show how static routes are added, why to add them and some basic troubleshooting.
Example Interface Configuration
# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 DEVICE=eth0 BOOTPROTO=static IPADDR=10.1.6.21 NETMASK=255.255.255.192 ONBOOT=yes
# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 DEVICE=eth1 BOOTPROTO=static IPADDR=10.1.7.41 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 ONBOOT=yes
Example Default Route Configuration
# cat /etc/sysconfig/network NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME=testing.example.com GATEWAY=10.1.6.1
GATEWAY configuration in
/etc/sysconfig/network tells the system that 10.1.6.1 is the default route. This configuration could also be added to
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file; However if multiple
ifcfg-<interface> files have a
GATEWAY this may provide unexpected results as there can only be one default route.
Example Why we need a static route
For our example network configuration we have two interfaces; eth0 (10.1.6.21) for the internet, and eth1 (10.1.7.41) for the internal network. If we were to hook up to a backup server such as 10.1.5.202 we would want the connectivity to go through eth1 the internal network, rather than eth0 which is the internet network.
Since 10.1.5.202 is not in the same subnet at eth1 (10.1.7.0/24) the routing table does not automatically route the packet through eth1 and would then hit the "catchall" default route out eth0. To force all of our packets destined for 10.1.5.202 out eth1 we will need to set up a static route.
Adding a Static Route
Adding the route to the current routing table
Adding the static route is a fairly simple task however before we start we must first know the gateway for the internal network; for our example the gateway is 10.1.7.1.
Adding a single IP
# ip route add 10.1.5.202/32 via 10.1.7.1 dev eth1
The above command adds a route that tells the system to send all packets for 10.1.5.202 and only that IP to 10.1.7.1 from device eth1.
Adding a subnet of IP's
In order to add a whole subnet than you will need to change the CIDR on the end of the IP. In this case I want to add anything in the 10.1.5.0 - 10.1.5.255 IP range. To do that I can specify the netmask of 255.255.255.0 in CIDR format(/24) at the end of the IP itself.
If a CIDR (or netmask) is not specified the route will default to a /32 (single ip) route.
# ip route add 10.1.5.0/24 via 10.1.7.1 dev eth1
The difference between these two routes is that the second will route anything between 10.1.5.0 and 10.1.5.255 out eth1 with 1 route command. This is useful if you need to communicate with multiple servers in a network and don't want to manage lengthy routing tables.
Adding the route even after a network restart
While the commands above added the static route they are only in the routing table until either the server or network service is restarted. In order to add the route permanently, the route can be added to the
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth1
10.1.5.0/24 via 10.1.7.1 dev eth1
If the above configuration file does not already exist than simply create it and put only the route itself in the file (# comments are ok). When the interface is restarted next the system will add any valid route in the
route-eth1 file to the routing table.
I highly suggest that when possible anytime you add a route to the
route-<interface> files that the interface itself is restarted to validate whether the route is actually in place correctly or not. I have been on many late night calls where a static route was not added correctly to the configuration files and was removed on the next reboot, which is also long after everyone has forgotten that a static route was required.
Troubleshooting a Static Route
Check if the route is in the routing table
Before performing any deep down troubleshooting steps the easiest and first step should be to check if the routing table actually has the route you expect it to have.
# ip route show 10.1.5.0/24 via 10.1.7.1 dev eth1 10.1.6.0/26 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 10.1.6.21 10.1.7.0/24 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 10.1.7.41 default via 10.1.6.1 dev eth0
Use tcpdump to see tcp/ip communication
The easiest way that I have found to find out whether a static route is working correctly or not is to use
tcpdump to look at the network communication. In our example above we were attempting to communicate to 10.1.5.202 through device eth1.
# tcpdump -qnnvvv -i eth1 host 10.1.5.202 tcpdump: listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes 16:50:35.880941 IP (tos 0x10, ttl 64, id 59563, offset 0, flags [DF], proto: TCP (6), length: 60) 10.1.7.41.41403 > 10.1.5.202.22: tcp 0 16:50:35.881266 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 59, id 0, offset 0, flags [DF], proto: TCP (6), length: 60) 10.1.5.202.22 > 10.1.7.41.41403: tcp 0
tcpdump command will only listen on eth1 and output only results that to or from 10.1.5.202.
TCP connections require communication from both the source and the destination, to validate a static route you can simply initiate a tcp connection (telnet to port 22 in this case) from the server with the static route to the destination server. In the output above you can see communication from 10.1.7.41 to 10.1.5.202 from the eth1 interface, this line alone shows that the static route is working correctly.
If the static route was incorrect or missing the tcpdump output would look similar to the following.
# tcpdump -qnnvvv -i eth1 host 10.1.5.202 tcpdump: listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes 16:50:35.881266 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 59, id 0, offset 0, flags [DF], proto: TCP (6), length: 60) 10.1.5.202.22500 > 10.1.7.41.22: tcp 0
In the above, only the target server is communicating over eth1.
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